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从《盐铁论》解析“酱缸”文化“酵母”(源代码)——中国人(心)性与人(身)权史探 王晓朋著  发帖心情 Post By:2017-11-28 8:13:47 [只看该作者]

内容简介

本文主要试图揭示中西文化差异的焦点——源自先秦和古希腊文化中的认识论与价值观,以及社会维稳和维生模式上的起点不同;尽管等级制是人类社会的本质架构属性,但是古代中国由于定居农耕经济生产的自给自足性大陆文明,与西方古埃及,古印度,古巴比伦以及古希腊罗马社会,自然形成的农工商经济生产等交换互利性海洋文明之间,存在着物欲驱动下的触感点性思维和视觉主导下的视界线性思维方式的大相径庭。换言之:人们的生活与生产方式就决定着社会思维模式的形成。由此造成史前中国社会分工之初,本应自然形成的交换互利人际关系的扭曲变形不存在“平权互利”和“等价交换”等文明社会关系生成的土壤。所以“平权”与“等价”就是探讨中国人(心)性与人(身)权的关键范畴。

公元前81年汉朝中央政府召开了有关国家垄断盐铁产业,和官营均输、平准、货币等交换流通领域以及酒水专卖专利等有关经济政策的儒法大讨论。虽名称《盐铁论》会议实际是对商周与秦汉以来的政治、经济、文化、外交、军事、思想等诸多领域经验教训的总结。这场中国古代社会上层建筑领域,史无前例的儒法思想大对决。在文学贤良身上集中体现出中国士君子文化的精气神和真善美——即坚持继承先秦孔孟和老庄之道“抑强扶弱”的主张。(根据中医养生理论认为:精盈气足神具是维持人生的最佳条件。其哲学意义就是气成论——“象曰:天行健君子以自强不息。地势坤君子以厚德载物”)。老子说“道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物,万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和”;庄子曰“若夫乘天地之正,而禦六氣之辯,以遊无窮者,彼且惡乎待哉?”而孔子说“志氣塞於天地行之充於四海”《孔子家語·論禮》《孟子》称“我知言,我善养吾浩然之气”,公孙丑追问“何谓浩然之气?”孟子曰:“难言也。其为气也,至大至刚,以直养而无害,则塞于天地之间”;综合这些言论可知:先秦士君子要有不畏强权的阳刚志气和为民请命的浩然正气以及恤弱扶困的怀柔和气《盐铁论》文学贤良言行里充分体现出来。从此老庄与孔孟之道就在中国传统文化中确立了主导地位。换言之先秦文化就是中华民族“真善美”特质的“酵母”——饮食男女人之大欲存焉”《礼记礼运》“食色性也。仁内也非外也。义外也非内也。”《孟子告子》孔子曰“割不正不食。不得其酱不食《乡党》(相传周公是发明了窖缸酿酱)《礼记》说“酱用百有二十瓮”《膳夫》“濡鸡醢酱濡鱼卵酱”《内则》。秦汉就有“醯酱千缸”酿造食材《史记·货殖列传》 如果说先秦酿造的酒水和酱卤丰富了中国饮食文化的色香味。那么先秦仁人志士的精气神就是存留在所谓中国“酱缸”文化里封闭不腐的酱卤老汤。换言之:古代中国“酱缸文化”就是先民在长-黄流域生存环境的缩影——即任何外来文化必须嫁接在三千年不朽的老庄和孔孟之道的古树老藤上,才能在中国传播成活。但是在秦汉以后的历史,中国文化思想就很少再有开放式跃进。商周曾经出现的言论自由和思想开禁等文明曙光在汉庭盐铁会议昙花一现后就再没出现过。我们在这次儒法论战里看到古代中国社会维稳与维生对立统一关系存在着以下胎记硬伤:

1)先秦社会主要依*所谓父系一脉亲亲相承延续法则,在维持着等级制架构秩序的稳定。这反映在商周宗法制(正妻嫡长子)或世袭制(儿子,兄弟,叔侄)的政治地位传递继承。由此建构起“溥天之下,莫非王土;率土之滨,莫非王臣”的大宗天子王向下根据血缘亲疏关系依次进行地权大小的分配制度。既宗法所确立的先天性政治地位和以土地占有为代表的后天性经济实力挂钩;这样原本在丧葬祭祀活动的大宗小宗之排序五服制,也转化成天子和公侯伯子男以及士族等贡享分配标准。其主要*丧葬祭祀和武力权威等手段维持等级秩序的稳定。所以抓紧粮食与人口生产增量就成为其经济活动的被动性特征;而开疆拓土的物欲领地意识则成为其政治活动的主动性特色。后者正是先秦儒道墨士族坚决要反对的冲动

2)在先秦定居农耕中,“多静少动的适者生存”方式所表现出的“惰性与惯性”或者“因循守旧”特色,就是地球运转和重力场对中国古人触感心理活动的反映。根据先秦意识形态抽象性与象形化的线条符号演变史,可知垂直经线“1”与平衡维线“一”分别表征先秦文化的隐性与显性的极限字符源代码(source code)。前者反映出古人崇高尊上意识指向,后者表现出古人时序永恒意识趋势。这就是先秦数术混沌的通假特点。并在孔孟之道改良君主制的儒术里凸显。

3)先秦社会缺失诸如“文字与货币”这样西方文明初期创造的人际关系——交流互通的共识信用物化标准手段。就造成社会等级建构且依赖血缘关系,维持的政治世袭制和经济继承法始终处于亚稳定状态;所以先秦文化的政治维稳特色浓厚。族权在社会生活中具有强大影响是中国家族制度长盛不衰的主要标志。它既与地方绅权结合,同时又与政权相结合。族权在很大程度上承担了地方政权的职能—“家国同构”的本质就是家庭、家族、国家在结构上的同一性,既国是家的外延放大。换言之,孔孟之道所谓修身齐家和治国平天下,就凝聚着感性情商之人文特征。

最后本文试图把先秦阴阳学和五行说等古典自然哲理融合在老子所谓“道生之,德畜之,物形之,势成之。是以万物莫不尊道而贵德。道之尊,德之贵,夫莫之命而常自然。故道生之,德畜之;长之育之;成之熟之;养之覆之。生而不有,为而不恃,长而不宰。是谓玄德;玄德深矣远矣。与物反矣!然后乃至大顺”《道德经》,和孔子所说“天子以德为车.以乐为御.诸侯以礼相与.大夫以法相序.士以信相考.百姓以睦相守.天下之肥也.是谓大顺.大顺者所以养生送死事鬼神之常也”《礼运》“天人合一”主张中。并在五行运作图和乾坤卦像里契合表现出来。这也是《盐铁论》认识思想的的哲理基石。(因本人不会用电脑绘图,故只有文字去解释所画的简图)。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This book reveals the significant differences between Chinese and western culture: the epistemology and values originated from Pre-qin Period and from ancient Greek culture, as well as keeping social stability and subsistence. Despite the hierarchy is the essence of structural properties of human society, the continental civilization of the ancient Chinese agrarian economy is different from the Marine civilization of the economy of ancient Egypt, ancient India, ancient Babylon, ancient Greek and Roman from the perspective of touch point of thinking driven by material and linear way of thinking dominated by the visual horizon. In other words, the way of people’s survival is vital to the formation of thinking modes. Therefore, from the very beginning of China's social labor division, the naturally formed, mutual beneficial exchange relationships were distorted. There did not exist equality, mutual benefit and equivalent exchange generated in the soil of the civilized social relations. So, equality is key to explore Chinese humanities and human rights. In 81 B.C., the central government of the Han Dynasty held the discussion about state monopoly of salt and iron as well as cargo policy, price control, currency circulation and alcohol selling etc. Although under the name of the discussion of salt and iron, it was a summary of experiences and lessons of politics, economy, culture, diplomacy and military etc. from Shang, Zhou and Qin Dynasties. The discussion is an unprecedented one of Confucianism vs Legalism in the ancient Chinese social superstructure, which reflects the vitality of Chinese gentleman, namely, the inherited claim by the Pre-qin Confucius, Mencius and Zhuangzi of restraining the powerful while helping the weak. From then on, the thoughts of Confucius, Mencius and Zhuangzi were established as the leading in the Chinese traditional culture. But in the after two thousand years in the Chinese history there was no jump in the course of politics, economy, ideology and culture. In other words, the dawn of civilization such as freedom of speech and thought appeared in Shang, Zhou and Han Dynasties never ever appeared.

 

Xiaopeng Wang was born in 1952 in China. In 1969 he took part in the campaign of the educated youth going to the mountainous areas and the countryside which was supported by Mao Zedong. In 1971 he worked at the construction department in a coal mine. In 1976 he studied at Zhengzhou Normal College majoring in physics. He has been a physics teacher from 1979 to his retirement in 2013. Due to his father’s influence of being an archaeologist, the author is fond of reading and thinking. From 1976 he began to question the definition of "proletarian" by Marx and Engels. He draws the conclusion that proletarian does not exist at all in a hierarchy society by studying history both at home and abroad. He also questioned the prediction that human being on the Earth will perish from the Theory of Big Bang, the Relativistic Mechanics and the Thermodynamics Entropy. He authored The Outline of Survival Philosophy in 2001. 


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